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వెలి వాడల విప్లవకారుడు  సత్యమూర్తి  వెలి వేతల విప్లవ కవి శివసాగర్


అది 2009 సంవస్సారం తెలంగాణ ఉద్యమం కేసీఆర్ ఆమరణ దీక్ష కన్న ముందు KG. సత్యమూర్తి SIR ని మా ఊరికి తీసుకొచ్చాను. కొన్ని రోజులు మా ఇంటిలో ఉన్నాడు.
అప్పుడే తెలంగాణ ఉద్యమ అవసరాల రీత్యా ఒక వాహనాన్ని కొన్నాను. బాబు సామాణిక ప్రజాస్వామిక తెలంగాణ ఆకాంక్ష కోసం నాకు తెలంగాణ రాష్ట్రం లోని అన్ని జిల్లాలు తిరగాలని ఉంది. అని అనడంతో నేను నా సహచరులతో చర్చించి తెలంగాణ యాత్రను మొదలు పెట్టాము. కొన్ని జిల్లాల్లో KG సత్యమూర్తి గారితో కలిసి వెళ్ళాము.

ఈ క్రమంలో జనశక్తి నాయకుడు అమర్ చర్లపల్లి జైలు నుండి రేపు విడుదల అవ్వుతున్నాడని సత్యమూర్తి SIR కు తెలియజేయడం తో బాబు నన్ను రేపు ఉదయమే చర్లపల్లి జైలు దగ్గరికి తీసుకొని వేళ్ళు అని కోరాడు. సరే అని చెప్పి పడుకున్నాను. నన్ను కొద్దీ సేపటికి నిద్రలో నుండి లేపి బాబు పెన్ను తీసుకొని నేను చెప్పింది వ్రాయి అని ఒక కవితా సందేశాన్ని చెప్పాడo మొదలు పెట్టాడు, మిత్ర సాహిత్య కృస్గిని ఉద్దేశించి. ఒక్క సారి చెప్పాడు,కుదరలేదు, పేపర్ చించి వేశాము, మళ్ళీ,మళ్ళీ ఇలా 20 సార్ల తర్వాత ఆ యొక్క కవిత ను పూరి చేసుకున్నాo. తెల్లవారింది. అసలే ఆనాడు kg సత్యమూర్తి sir ఆరోగ్యం పూర్తిగా క్షినించి ఉన్నాడు.షుగర్ వ్యాధి తో పదే పదే మూత్రం వచ్చేది . మంచం దిగి మూత్రం పోయలేని పరిస్థితి. మనమే డబ్బాలో మూత్రం పట్టి బయట పోసి వచ్చే పరిస్థితి. వృద్ధాప్య కారణం గా ఆలోచనలు చేయడం ఇబ్బందులు పడుతున్న పరిస్థితులు. ఆ రోజు మిత్ర విడుదల సందర్బంగా సందేశాన్ని వ్రాయడం కోసం నిద్ర లేని రాత్రిని గడిపిన శివ సాగర్….
తెల్లవారి చర్లపల్లి జైలు కు బయలు దేరి గేట్ బయట 3 గంటల పాటు పడిగాపులు పడ్డాక అమర్ విడుదల అయ్యాడు.. గేట్ ముందు మిత్రను ఆత్మీయంగా అల్లుకొని రెడ్ సెల్యూట్ చెప్పి విప్లవ స్వాగతం పలికాడు శివ సాగర్.
సాయంత్రం బషీర్ బాగ్ ప్రెస్ క్లబ్ లో మిత్ర రచనల సంకలనం విడుదల సందర్బంగా అరుణోదయ సంస్కృత సమాఖ్య (ACF) అద్వర్యం లో జరిగే సభ కు ఆవ్వానించారు అరుణోదయ మిత్రులు.

సాయంత్రం 7 గంటలకు బషీర్ బాగ్ ప్రెస్ క్లబ్ కు చేరుకొని సత్య మూర్తి గారు మెల్ల.. మెల్లగా మెట్లు ఎక్కుతున్న క్రమంలో, నేను ఎంతగానో అభిమానించ్చే విప్లవ కవి ఖాసీం అన్నా శివ సాగర్ కవిత్వాన్ని ఏంతో ఉత్సాహంగా స్ఫూర్తి దాయకంగా వర్ణిస్తూ సభికులను ఉత్తేజ పరుస్తున్నాడు.చిన్నగా మెట్లు ఎక్కుతున్న సత్య మూర్తి గారికి sir వింటున్నారా …శివ సాగర్ కవితలను ఖాసీం అన్నా చాలా ఉద్వెగంగా మాట్లాడుతున్నాడు అని అనడంలో సంతోషాన్ని వ్యక్తం చేశాడు. శివ సాగర్ కవితలను ఉపన్యాసకుడు వివరిస్తున్న క్రమంలో ఇంతలో సభా ప్రాంగణం లోకి ప్రవేశించాము ,ఒక్క సారిగా సభ ప్రాంగణంలో వాతావరణం పూర్తిగా మారి పోయింది.
ఉపన్యాకుడు అటాత్తుగా తన ఉపన్యాసాన్ని ఆపాడు.

వెలివాడల విప్లవకారుడు KG సత్య మూర్తి , వెలి వేతల విప్లవ కవి శివ సాగరుకు కనీసం స్వాగతం పలకలేదు… ఎవరు పిలిచారు , అని గుసగుసలు, కొందరు కోపంతో రగిలి పోయారు. తమ వెలి వేతల బ్రహ్మణత్వ నైజాన్ని చాటుకున్నారు. సభా నిర్వాహకుల పై వత్తిడి తెచ్చారు… కనీస బాధ్యతగా వ్యవహరించలేదు. పరిస్థితిని గ్రహించి నేను ఎప్పటికపుడు sir కి వివరించాను..
అయ్యినా ఆ అవమానపు వాతావరణాన్ని తన చిరునవ్వు తో పలకరించి వెను తిరిగిన సహన మూర్తి …

మిత్ర విడుదల సందర్బంగా నిద్ర లేని రాత్రి ని గడిపిన శివసాగర్ కు అక్కడ అవమానం స్వాగతం పలికింది. తను నిద్ర లేకుండా వ్రాసిన మిత్ర అభినందన సందేశం చదవ కుండానే వెను తిరిగి వెళ్ళాము..

అవమానపు బరువు ఎక్కిన గుండెలతో నేను kg.సత్యమూర్తి sir ని నా కారులో తోలుకొని నిద్ర లేని విప్లవ మూర్తిని నిద్ర ఫుచ్చి 80 కిలోమీటర్ ల దూరం లో ఉన్న మా ఊరు చేరే వరకు ప్రయాణంలో గాయపడ్డ కవి గుండెల ఆలోచనలు సంఘర్షించాయి నాలో …

ఇలా ఎన్నో సార్లు తెలంగాణా లో శివసాగర్ కు నా సమక్షం లో వెలి వేతలు జరిగాయి. ఏనుగుల మధ్య చీమలు నిజమని రుజువు అయ్యింది.

నూరు పువ్వులు వికసించని…. వేయి ఆలోచనలు సంఘర్షించని అనే మావో సూక్తికి ఈ దేశంలో విలువ లేదని అర్థం అయ్యింది.

ఈ దేశానికి బుద్ధుడు కావాలి, మార్క్స్ కావాలి ,అంబేద్కర్ కావాలి …. అంబేద్కర్ ఆలోచన విధానమే శరణ్యం అని తెలుసుకొని ఆ భాటలో పయనించి తన సాహిత్యానికి , ఈ తరానికి కొత్త భాటలు వేసిన KG సత్యమూర్తి మా వాడే అయ్యితాడు తప్పితే మీ వాడు కాడు. ఒక వేల మీరు స్మరించినా అది అవకాశ వాదమే తప్పా ఆయనకు అర్పించే నిజమైన నివాళ్ళు కాదు. మా అంటరాని ప్రతి ఒక్కరి గుండెల్లో గూడు కట్టుకొని కొత్త సందేశాన్ని ఇస్తూ.. మా కర్థ్యవ్యమై కొనసాగుతూనే ఉన్నాడు. ఆయన ఆశలను,ఆశయాలను మీ బ్రహ్మణిజపు వెకిలి చేష్టలతో మీరు కించపరించినా మేము మళ్ళీ భుజానికి ఎత్తుకున్నాం.ఆ దారుల్లో పాయనిస్తాం!! అది మాతోనే సాధ్యం..

-సూదగాని వెంకటేష్–

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*RELEASE ADV. NAYAK IMMEDIATELY AND UNCONDITIONALLY!*


*CONDEMN THE ARREST OF ADVOCATE UPENDRA NAYAK BY THE ODISHA POLICE!*

_23rd February 2018_

The *Indian Association of People’s Lawyers* condemns the arrest of peoples’ advocate Upendra Nayak by the Paralakhemundi police, Odisha on the night of 20thFebruary 2018. He was produced before the Mohana, Gajapati Judicial Magistrate on 21st February and subsequently sent to R. Udaygiri Jail. Shockingly, he has been arrested in ten criminal cases under serious charges like sedition, waging war against the State and provisions of the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, wherein he himself was the advocate defending the accused.

Advocate Nayak is more that 65 years of age and a regular legal practitioner in the courts of Gajapati. One of the southern districts in Orissa, Gajapati is where Adivasis constitute 51 percent of the population in the district. Advocate Nayak has been defending innocent tribals of Gajapati who have been arrested in fabricated and false cases under the name of anti-Maoists operations. Apparently he has been sent to jail for his alleged involvement in the ten cases. All registered way back in 2009 and 2010 in which he successfully defended number of innocents including Arati Majhi, Pasanti Patamijhi, Munita Lakshmi and the trial ended in acquittals. The case of Arati Majhi is well documented by the Women against Sexual Violence and State Repression (WSS) (https://wssnet.files.wordpress.com/2013/11/arati-majhi-case-from-challenging-impunity.pdf).

However this type of arrest wherein the State has identified a lawyer with the cause of his client, is becoming a common practice in so-called terrorist cases or Maoist trials. IAPL had observed in earlier fact findings to Chhattisgarh and Madurai how Advocates Rekha Praganiya and A. Murugan had been arrested in criminal cases in which they themself had been defending other accused. Special ant-terror laws such as UA(P)A with broad and vague definitions of conspiracy, association and culpability often help the State to do so.

This practice is in violation of the “Basic Principles of the Role of Lawyers, 1990” (Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders) which clearly states that“Lawyers shall not be identified with their clients or their clients’ causes as a result of discharging their functions”. By hindering Advocate Nayak to fearlessly practice his profession and defend his client, the State has also violated Article 19(1)(g) of the Constitution, a fundamental right, that guarantees a person the right to practice any profession.

IAPL demands:
*RELEASE Adv Upendra Nayak immediately and unconditionally.*
*STOP identifying lawyers with the causes of their clients.*
*REPEAL the draconian Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act*

Signed,

_Adv. Surendra Gadling, General Secretary, IAPL_

_Adv. Sudha Bharadwaj, Vice-President, IAPL _

Support students fight against discrimination perpetrated TISS and govt authorities.


The decisions to withdraw financial aid to students is against constitutional right to education. See below statement from TISS students and support their struggle to continue their education.

We, students of TISS, Mumbai, are writing you in regard to the GOI-PMS issue that stands unresolved since institute has notified its withdrawal from all form of financial aid to students—now onwards all students, both current and upcoming, will have to pay their full fees even as they wait for their state scholarship amounts to come.

After many consultations and meeting with the administration over past many months, we have come to the conclusion that the administration is determined to go ahead with its plans. All talks and mediation have failed, and the administration has yielded to none of our demand.

This gives us no choice but to voice against policies that will not only leave marginalised students across campuses to fend for themselves, but also mar institute’s reputation and its claim to social justice. The abandonment of core ethos is to be withstood by each student of TISS. All students will rise in unison to stop the onslaught on their rights.

In this milieu, Students’ Union has taken a stand not only to facilitate students’ grievances, but to take the lead. And we call for a strike across the TISS Campuses on Feb 21, 2018. We call for boycotting all classes, field work, submissions on the 21st. We appeal to all students of TISS across campuses to observe the strike and have gatherings on the same day. Parallel agitations in all campuses will strengthen our voice. We at TISS, Mumbai will gather and approach the Directors office at 10 am and will continue the agitation. Our collective agitation will be an echo in the ears of the state and central government that have been constantly reducing fund in higher education.
We appeal to all the students, faculties, and office bearers to co-operate and stand in solidarity with the cause of students. Every effort of yours in this regard will decide the fate of students and future of the institute.

The Day of Reckoning is Feb 21. We decide and reimagine our future.

Time Line of the University Strike :

1.Poster Making
18- 20 February at 9pm
In front of OLD DH main campus

2. Protest Rally
20th February at 9pm
Infrontof Old Campus DH

3. University Strike across Campuses
21st February at 10am
Gathering In front of OLD DH campus.

#Long_ Live_ Students Unity
#Let’s_Stop_Privatisation of_Education

Regards
Students’ Union 2017- 2018

Condemn arrest of Damodar Turi by Jharkhand Police


16th February 2018
Persecuted Prisoners’ Solidarity Committee (PPSC) condemns the continued repression on
activists and groups associated with people’s struggles in Jharkhand by the police and
administration. Damodar Turi, a member of the Central Committee of Visthapan Virodhi Jan
Vikas Andolan (VVJVA), was arrested in the evening on 15th February 2018 from Ranchi. He
was arrested after he walked out of a public programme organised by a joint front in
Jharkhand called Loktantr Bachao Manch (LBM). The Manch has been formed by various
organizations in Jharkhand in the face of the many undemocratic measures of the Jharkhand
government, including the recent banning of a registered trade union, Mazdoor Sangathan
Samiti (MSS). The LBM programme drew attention to the anti-people measures of the BJP
government in Jharkhand including starvation related deaths following the compulsory use
of Adhaar for availing PDS services, the banning of MSS, and the fake encounter of Motilal
Baske in June 2017.
Turi has been arrested in connection to a case lodged at Giridih Mufassil Police Station on
7
th November 2017. On 7th November, a public meeting and rally had been organised by the
MSS marking 100 years of Bolshevik Revolution in Giridih. MSS has been banned thereafter
in December 2017 with several of its members facing arrest and its offices being raided and
shut down by Jharkhand Police. This case at Giridih was registered against 12 members of
the MSS and 800 unknown persons. Turi had only participated in the programme.
Damodar Turi has been active in Jharkhand for years raising issues related to displacement
of adivasis and moolvasis and forcible land acquisition by the government for handing over
to corporations. Although he is not a member of MSS, but after the banning of MSS, the
police has been attempting to connect him with the Trade Union and has foisted several
cases upon him. The DGP of Jharkhand had on 20th December 2017 at a press conference
stated that Turi was the main coordinator of the MSS and also has other cases lodged
against him. In a statement issued on 22nd December 2017 the VVJVA had clarified that Turi
is not a member of the MSS. He had been acquitted by a Court in Ranchi of the false case
that was foisted upon him in 2009 wherein he was arrested with alleged ‘naxalite literature’.
Prior to the banning of the MSS he had no case pending against him. But after the banning,
he has been named in four FIRs connected to MSS. Apart from provisions of the IPC, these
FIRs have also been lodged under draconian anti-people laws like the Unlawful Activities
(Prevention) Act, 1967 and the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 1908.
The VVJVA which came into existence a few years after the formation of the state of
Jharkhand, has been actively raising issues concerning displacement of adivasis and
moolvasis. It has been actively involved in their struggle for Jal-Jangal-Jameen. Over the years the VVJVA has raised issues including amendments to the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act,

1908 and Santal Parganas Tenancy Act, 1949, against forceful land acquisition for Electro

Steel Plant and Jindal Mining Project in Santhal Pargana, and of persons displaced due to the

Tenughat power plant, Bokaro steel plant, Tiger Project Betla, and Kutaku Dam. The VVJVA

has therefore been on the radar of the Government for long. In April 2017 the Annual

Report 2016-17 by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India had, without any

basis, termed the VVJVA as a frontal organisation of the CPI (Maoist). And now its activists

are being targeted.

PPSC condemns the arrest and targeting of activists and groups raising and struggling for

people’s issues in Jharkhand. We demand that Damodar Turi be released forthwith and

cases registered against him and members of MSS be withdrawn with immediate effect.

Stan Swamy, Sudha Bhardwaj

Persecuted Prisoners’ Solidarity Committee (PPSC)

Press release: The Safai Karmachari Kavalu Samiti demands demolition of the caste discriminatory wall in Santhaiyur village, Madurai, as per High court orders, August 2017


7th February 2018

The Safai Karmachari Kavalu samiti, Karnataka is a group of activists working for the rehabilitation of persons engaged in manual scavenging and total eradication of manual scavenging, which is the worst form of caste based slavery.

The samiti is distressed and deeply concerned that a 50 foot long and 5 foot high wall has been erected by the Paraiyar community in Santhaiyur village, specifically to create a barrier against the Arunthathiyars living in the same area.

Inspite of the Madurai bench of the Madras High court ordering in August 2017, that the wall, which has been built unlawfully, should be demolished within four months, there has been no attempt to demolish the wall.

The Safai Karmachari Kavalu Samiti is of the belief that this kind of wall exists between different sub-castes across the country and is a manifestation of a deep rooted caste structure that divides even those it oppresses.

The communities which have been victim to the caste system for decades, should work together to remove these caste hierarchies between themselves and not become further points of oppression.

We urge the paraiyar community to immediately dismantle this wall that is a form of humiliation and oppression against the arunthathiyar community. If this is not done, we demand the district administration of Madurai to intervene and dismantle the wall to uphold the Constitutional right to dignity of the Arundhathiyar community.

For more information, please contact

Mr. K B Obalesh

State Convener, Safaikarmachari Kavulu Samithi Karnataka

Ph: +91 97425 86468

Homage to Mahamata Ramabai Ambedkar(Ramai) on 120th Jayanti. By Milind Awasarmol, AIM-USA


Jai Bhim All,

Wishing everyone on the occasion of 120th Ramabai Ambedkar Jayanti. As is well known, Ramai’s life is a saga of sacrifice and sufferings. Ramai’s contributions as Babasaheb’s spouse in his monumental struggle is invaluable. Today, let us take a closer look into some of the instances of Ramai’s struggle and what she has endured for supporting Babasaheb through thick and thin in his titanic undertaking of emancipating enslaved humanity. It is generally assumed that Babasaheb was so consumed by his superhuman task, that he could not spare enough time for his family. Some of the below incidents, especially those coming straight from Babasaheb indicate that he was not only conscious of this but held deep-seated admiration and gratitude towards Ramai. Out of the four narratives, last is in original English, while the remaining three are translated to the best of my ability from Marathi. For those who can read Marathi, I would encourage them to also read the attached original texts in Marathi.

(C B Khairmodey – Khand 2, Page 67)

Below is a very heartbreaking narrative of how Babasaheb’s family members (including extended family) struggled for livelihood while he was studying abroad and was facing his own challenges for sustenance.

The money Babasaheb had handed down to Ramai before proceeding to London (for completing his unfinished education) soon dried up. Ramai’s brother, Shankarrao Dhutre and her younger sister Gaurabai labored daily to eke out a living. Shankarrao earned around 8 to 10 annas daily. Ramabai would spend it on buying the groceries for evening meal and then prepare the meal for the family. The evening meal consisted of four breads (Bhakari) made of jowar, one for Shankarrao, one for Yashwant (Babasaheb’s son) and one for Mukund (Babasaheb’s nephew) and the remaining last one would be shared between Gaurabai, Laxmibai(wife of Babasaheb’s deceased brother Anandrao, Mukund’s father) and Ramai, with additional servings of rice for the three ladies. Curry wasn’t always available. Most of the time, they scraped through with chutney or raw onions. There would be times when the family would manage just half a serving of dinner throughout the entire day! To procure cheaper firewood, Ramai would take Yashwant after nightfall far away from their neighborhood (Poibawadi) to Dadar-Mahim and these two would then return home between 8 to 9 pm carrying the heavy load of firewood on their heads. This was done in the dark of the night so that nobody would notice and realize that the wife and son of such an erudite person(Babasaheb) are reduced to carrying firewood on their head. At times, when Shankarrao would not get work, Ramai, Laxmibai and Gaurabai would leave early in the morning for Worli village to work on making cow dung cakes(gowari) and would return home around 8:00 pm.

Aathavnitle Babasaheb, Yogiraj Bagul, Page 125

Below incident is from 1955 at Babasaheb’s New Delhi residence during a visit from Dr. N. M. Nimgade and his newly wed wife Hira.

“I’ve suffered a great deal in my life. I’ve endured extreme privation. I didn’t have employment after returning from abroad. Legal practice was yet to start. Everyday Ramu and myself would sustain on rice and bread made out of rice flour. Due to this I became weak. Eventually, as things began to settle for a better life, we lost my favorite son Rajratna. Ramu wailed her heart out. She was inconsolable. She was the mother after all! I couldn’t muster the physical strength to take Rajratna to the cemetery. My wardrobe consisted of western attires like woolen suits, but had no formal Indian wear(dhoti/pyjama). How could I take my baby’s corpse to the cemetery in a suit? Therefore, I skipped the cemetery and others performed the final rites on my Rajratna.

I began practicing law and when finally, good times in our lives seem to be beckoning us, Ramu became ill. Day by day her health began deteriorating. My friend Dr. Jadhav visited us and checked Ramu up. He advised me, “Your wife will not be able to survive another childbirth.” That night, I gave myself to deep thought. Shall I pursue filial aspirations at the risk of losing my wife? I immensely loved my Ramu. She had devoted herself to take care of me. She was always there for me. I was resolute in my control over my mind so that I could prolong Ramu’s company till the end. This was my attempt for Ramu’s long life. As my life partner, all that Ramu got was pain, suffering and hardship. She was very beautiful and pure! She was delicate like a tender banana leaf and fair like the core of a banana. I got her treated as much as possible, but, at last…and Babasaheb began weeping uncontrollably. Tears were freely flowing from his eyes. This was my first experience to see him so emotional and crying inconsolably. Hira too started to sob and even I couldn’t control my tears. I was witnessing a warrior king (of his people), so forlorn with the memories of his deceased companion

Bahishkrut Bharat – Feb 3 1928

After about a year since its’ inception, Babasaheb’s publication for people’s awakening “Bashishkrut Bharat” was facing financial difficulties and was at risk of shutting down. Babasaheb writes an emotive editorial to appeal to the people for doing more towards fighting the practice of untouchability, while inspiring through his and Ramai’s own personal example. Below is a snippet from that appeal, its’ relevance surviving to this day.

Do note that Babasaheb used to refer to himself in third person in his editorials.

Ever since he (Babasaheb) has undertaken the enormous task of uplifting the downtrodden, he is constantly enduring the abuses and curses from publications with nationalistic and religionistic leanings. Owing to his resolve for investigating and exposing the existing ills emanating from religious and social practices, he has invoked displeasure from his upper caste friends of old times and hence has lost any hopes of getting their potential help in his professional life (as a lawyer). With no returns whatsoever, he labored on to the best of his ability for one year to fill up columns after columns of “Bahishkrut Bharat” to enlighten and awaken the people. And while doing that, he burned the mid night oil without paying heed to his health, happiness, enjoyment and luxury. Moreover, while this author was studying abroad, she(Ramai) who worked round the clock to run the household and continues to do so even now and due to his penury even after his return from abroad, unflinchingly carried heavy loads of cow dung on her head- for such an affectionate, cultured and revered one, he is not able to spare even half an hour out of 24 hours in her company. This author believes that there’s nothing special in this selflessness. In fact, he thanks providence for his birth in an untouchable family, thereby providing him with an opportunity to rigorously labor his body and mind for the noble task of uplifting the untouchables. He is keenly aware of repaying his debt towards society, a debt (loukik run) that every untouchable is born with.

Preface to “Thoughts on Pakistan” published in 1941, 6 years after Ramai’s demise

INSCRIBED TO THE MEMORY OF RAMU

As a token of my appreciation of her goodness of heart, her nobility of mind and her purity of character and also for the cool fortitude and readiness to suffer along with me which she showed in those friendless days of want and worries which fell to our lot.
As is evident from the few incidents above, tremendous amount of personal sacrifice and hardships have gone into laying the foundations from where some of us could escape the tentacles of caste oppression and experience empowerment in every walk of life. On this special day, let us pay our tributes to Mahamata (The Great Mother) Ramai by acknowledging and honoring the sacrifices and deprivations endured by our earlier generations and resolving to continue their struggle towards fulfilling Babasaheb’s dream of emancipating and empowering the rest of our society.

Regards

Milind Awasarmol,

Ambedkar International Mission, United States of America

Reservations, Buddhism & correct Caste Certificate format.


1. In the Indian cities/villages the fundamental unit of society is a NOT an individual but an endogamous social group known as CASTE GROUP while in the forest societies the fundamental unit is another endogamous social group known as TRIBE.

Both social groups, Caste and Tribe, are different from each other.

2. The protection of Reservations was given to those SOCIAL GROUPS who remained socially, educationally and economically backward because of DID – Discrimination(D) , Inequality (I) and Denial of life opportunities(D).

3. To implement the protective policy of Reservations identification and listing of both – CASTE groups as well as TRIBAL groups was undertaken.

Two Constitutional orders were issued by the President in 1950, FIRST Scheduled Castes (SC) Order 1950 (under article 341), attached to this Order was the statewise list of caste groups. SECOND Constitution Scheduled Tribe (ST) Order 1950 (under article 342), attached with this order was the statewise list of tribal groups.

4. These two constitutional orders along with list of SCs and STs form the basis of preparation and issuance of certificate of Caste and Tribe.

These certificates of Castes and Tribes are only for identification of legitimate beneficiaries from the above listed Caste and Tribal groups.

5. Tribal groups are not part of any religion because tribals all over the globe have their own animistic culture, hence there is no mention of any religion in the Constitutional order for ST.

However in the Constitutional Order for SC it was mentioned that the caste groups professing only HINDUISM will be included in this list.

6. This linking of Scheduled Castes with a particular religion was against the provisions of Article 341 which does not mention any religious criteria for any caste to be recognised as SC.

Article 341 is religiously neutral, which means any untouchable caste belonging to any religion can be recognized as SC by the President.

7. Due to the above linking of Scheduled Castes ONLY WITH ONE RELIGION Hinduism, the untouchable castes converted into other religions like Islam, Sikhism, Christianity and Buddhism could not get listed into the Constitutional SC Order 1950.

8. In 1956 the Constitutional SC Order was amended and Scheduled castes converted into SIKHISM were included in the Order, this made the Sikh SC eligible for Reservations in Punjab as well as Central government. Thus untouchable castes from TWO religions – Hinduism n Sikhism were now declared as SC.

9. In Oct 1956 more than 5 lakh Hindu SC – (Mahar, Matang) embraced Buddhism in Nagpur, Maharashtra but no amendment to Constitutional SC Order was made to incorporate Hindu SC converts to Buddhism into that Order.

10. Therefore Buddhist converts were now NOT considered as SC for Maharashtra State as well as Centre gov, in other words erstwhile Mahars, Matangs who were earlier eligible for Reservations as Hindu SC before conversion now became IN-ELIGIBLE for Reservations.

11. Maharashtra gov issued an administrative / executive order in 1960 declaring the Buddhist converts as SC and extending the benefits of Reservations to them in the State. The format of Caste certificate was also suitable changed in 1962 to issue SC certificates to Buddhist converts. Thus at least in the Maharashtra state the Buddhist converts were recognised as SC and became eligible for related benefits.

12. But Central government NEITHER issued any such orders NOR enacted amendment in the Constitution SC order 1950 to extend the benefits of Reservations to Buddhist converts at the central levels.

So the Buddhist SC remained ineligible for and deprived of any benefits of SC at CENTRAL levels till 1990.

13. In 1990 the Central govt amended the Constitution SC Order 1950 adding Buddhism along with Hinduism and Sikhism, thus recognising Buddhist converts as SC. Now Schedule castes from 3 different religions – Hinduism, Sikhism & Buddhism were constitutionally recognised.

However it is again emphasised that linking of caste groups with religion is against the provisions of Article 341 which does not provides any religious criteria for any caste group to be recognised as SC.

14. Article 341 & 342 are related to “IDENTIFICATION” of Caste groups & Tribal groups respectively.

The Constitution SC Order 1950 and Constitution ST Order 1950 issued by President are related to “RECOGNISING” Caste groups and Tribal groups.

The certificate of SC and ST are for “CERTIFYING” a person that they belong to caste and tribe recognised by Constitution SC ST Order 1950.

15. We need to understand that the list of names attached to Constitution SC Order 1950 is that of CASTE GROUPS and not religious groups. The list includes 1108 names of CASTE GROUPS and there is no mention of any of the 3 religions – Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism.

In the same way, the Caste Certificate is supposed to certify only the CASTE of an individual, not his religion. Hence the NAME of the Caste along with the SERIAL number of the caste as per the Constitution Order 1950 is required to be mentioned in the Caste certificate.

16. No caste certificate of Hindu SC and Sikh SC mentions their respective religions but only the name of caste and serial number.

In Maharashtra in 1962 the format of caste certificate for Buddhist converts was rightly modified and a phrase “before conversion to Buddhism” was inserted to make it more clear that the individual is not a Hindu SC.

17. However most of the Caste certificates were issued WITHOUT any mention of the name and serial number of caste (as per Constitution SC Order 1950) to which the individual belonged before conversion, instead only Bouddha / Nav Bouddha was mentioned in place of Caste.

This type of certificate which is devoid of mention of name and serial number of Caste is INCORRECT but accepted in Maharashtra because the state government has issued Order in 1960 declaring converted Buddhists as SC.

18. Such Caste certificates were RIGHTLY not accepted by the Central government even after 1990 because they did not mention the name and serial number of caste to which the individual belonged prior to conversion to Buddhism.

Rejecting such caste certificates was technically CORRECT because Bouddha / Nav Bouddha was not a caste and hence not included in the list attached to the Constitution SC Order 1950.

19. The solution for this is to obtain the Caste Certificate in CORRECT FORMAT which should invariably include following three wordings :-

– Name of caste.
– Serial number of caste.
– Constitution (SC) Amendment Act 1990.

20. My NEW Caste certificate mentioned both Buddhism as well as Caste, so it is WRONG to say that Buddhist caste certificate is not accepted by central government.

Central government REJECTS Caste certificate which mentions ONLY Bouddha / Nav Bouddha, along with this the name and serial number of caste should ALSO be mentioned.

21. So while obtaining the caste certificate it should be ensured that at least name and serial number of Caste is mentioned. Mention of name of Caste in the certificate does NOT means that Buddhism believes in Caste system.

We should be worrying more about the mention of CASTE in the certificate and NOT about the Religion.

22. Our demand should be to extend the benefits of Reservations to SC people in Christianity and Islam also EITHER by adding these two religions in the Constitution SC Order 1950 OR by de-linking this order with religion, means no mention of any religion in the Order.

1) Most important the Nau Bouddha or Converted Buddhist or Neo Buddhist is *not caste* parse identified under Original Caste List prepared by GoM submitted to Union of India as per Presidential Constitution Order (CO) of 1950/51. The original caste list was prepared based on Census 1931.

2) Nau Bouddha or Neo buddhist or converted buddhist came into existence only after 1956 conversion.

3) The caste certificate mentioning Nau Bouddha or Converted Buddhist or Neo Buddhist is *only valid* in *state of Maharashtra* services or educational admission and *not valid* in Central Services.

To remove this ambiguity our Honourable minister Ramdas Athawale became State Minister of Social Justice & Empowerment on July 05, 2016. More than 1.5 years over now we are still waiting for final decision and resolve impasse pending since last 1990.

Rather waiting for final decision to come, one should make correct new caste certificate mentioning correct caste name and Sr. No of caste as per *Central caste list *. (For example caste name Mahar with Sr No 37, caste name Mang with Sr.No 46)

Most important ensure that correct caste certificate format is used (issued by Ministry of Home Affairs Government of India) and should mentioned or ticked marks on two Presidential Constitution Orders (CO) of 1950 and 1990. In 1990, Presidential CO 1990 came into existence to include Schedule Caste (SCs) population professing Sikhism & Buddhism faith.