The Human Rights Forum (HRF) and the Ganatantrik Adhikar Suraksha Sanghatan (GASS) demand that Greyhounds police personnel responsible for the killing of 27 Maoists and at least four civilians on the early morning of October 24, 2016 in the forest abutting Ramaguda village of Andrapalli panchayat in the “cut-off” area of Malkangiri district in Odisha be booked under relevant penal sections of the law including 302 IPC (murder) and the SC, ST (Prevention of Atrocities Act) and prosecuted. The criminal investigation in the case must be handed over to either the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) or a Court monitored Special Investigation Team (SIT).This SIT must consist of officers with impeccable credentials and untainted by earlier “encounter” killings.
A four-member HRF and GASS team on November 4 visited the place of firing by Greyhounds personnel. We spoke with adivasis in the area including residents of Gusumapadar and Ramaguda, a small village which is located quite close to the place of killings. Contrary to the assertion by senior police officials in both Andhra Pradesh and Orissa that the deaths were due to cross-fire, we believe they were the result of unilateral one-sided firing by the Greyhounds. That the Maoists opened fire first and the Greyhounds were forced to retaliate resulting in the deaths is pure fiction. It is our firm belief that the Maoists were taken totally by surprise and the fatalities, 31 in all at present count, were the result of a murderous attack by the Greyhounds.
The Maoists had set up camp a day before in a fairly dense forest area at the southern tip of the Jantri reserve forest. At about half a km from Ramaguda, the camp was located next to a stream and the hillock raises to the east and north. To the west is open ground and next to it are the placid waters of the Balimela reservoir. At the break of dawn on October 24, the Greyhounds, who were positioned at a height to the east and north in a semi-circle, opened fire killing 24 at the camp site itself. The others camp inmates ran in the opposite direction crossing the stream and going towards Ramaguda and beyond where the thick growth stretches into the Kondakamberu reserve forest.
What is pertinent is that the Greyhounds who were well-armed could have arrested the Maoists but they did no such thing. They not only outnumbered the latter, but were clearly in an advantageous position on higher ground. What is more, they had the element of surprise. But as has been their practice all these many decades, the Greyhounds began firing with the express intention to liquidate those present in the camp.
The day after, the police announced that four more Maoists were killed in yet another encounter in the area. We believe this to be untrue. What likely happened is that they found the bodies of four persons who were injured in the firing of the previous day. The police once again proclaimed that two more Maoists had died in another encounter on October 27. This is yet another falsehood. Local residents told us that after the Greyhounds left the area on October 9, the Maoists came a few days later and discovered yet another body near a rivulet. This was of a young man, a civilian who was resident of Bachilipadar, also in Andrapalli panchayat. Word was sent to his village and after his parents arrived, Ramaguda villagers helped them cremate the body near the reservoir. The toll at the moment is a total of 31 persons killed.
Senior police officials pointed out to the death of a Greyhounds commando and a bullet injury to the leg of another to buttress their claim that the Maoists had opened fire first and the police fired in self-defence. However, the Andhra Pradesh DGP has stated that the death of the commando was because he had drowned in a deep pond. It is also possible that the injury to the other commando could have been caused by a bullet fired by one of his colleagues.
In the matter of alleged encounters, the police, particularly the Greyhounds, have nothing to commend themselves. This is a commando force that was raised with the sole intention of shooting down Maoists as if they are wild game. Time and again they have attacked gatherings and killed people, including many civilians. We recall the recent killing of two adivasi farmers — Ganga Madkami (40) and Ganga Podiami (33) – by the Greyhounds on the afternoon of February 21, 2016 in the Puttakota forest area of Koyyuru mandal in Visakhapatnam district of AP. On that occasion the police peddled the fiction that the two, who hailed from Balakati and Tumsapalli villages of Korukonda block of Malkangiri district, as being members of the Galikonda area committee of the Maoists! One can go on citing many such examples.
At present, there is a pall of fear that is starkingly evident in the area with residents very afraid to speak out. What is very worrying is that the whereabouts of 14 adivasis from villages located across three panchayats –Andrapalli, Panasaput and Jodamba — are not known. According to information we could gather, 9 of them are from the village of Dhakerpadar, two from Bachilipadar and two more from Khajuriguda. Their relatives fear they are either in police custody or are lying dead somewhere in the forest after having been hit in the October 24 raid. What is noteworthy is all of them are civilians and not armed Maoist cadre. Many of them may have been in the camp because the Maoists were involved in recruiting people as militia members from several villages. In fact, two Maoists had come to Ramaguda on the night of October 23 asking that four youth come to the camp the next day for a meeting.
We urge Central and State governments to desist from viewing the Maoist movement as a mere outbreak of criminality but as a political movement and to deal with it politically. It must be acknowledged that this movement, though it does employ violence to further its goals, is one that has deep roots in material deprivation, social oppression and lack of freedom. The police do have the role to meet this violence by the Maoists but only in a manner that abides by the law and is respectful of the rights of people. It cannot resort to staged encounter killings and torture, among other illegalities.
Government must stop its ongoing policy to try to decimate the Maoists militarily. Serious efforts must be made by both the Government and the Maoists to initiate steps that would lead up to an unconditional dialogue.
VS Krishna S Jeevan Kumar
(HRF general secretary, AP&TS) (HRF president, AP&TS)
New Delhi: NCHRO strongly condemns the encounter killing of 39 leaders of members CPI (Maoist) in Malkangiri Andhra-Odisha border on 24th October of as well the eight Muslim under trial prisoners at Eintkhedi village near Bhopal on Monday morning. Both were cold blooded murder brutally implemented by security forces.
There are glaring contradictions between the statements issued by the Madhya Pradesh Home Minister Bhupendra Singh and the DIG Bhopal Raman Singh. The video clipping shot by the sarpanch of the Acharpura village and released by a channel also confirms our doubt. The police are seen in that video; shoot at an unarmed man at close range. Bhopal Central Prison is said to be one of the high security prisons in India. We don’t know how these eight under trials, said to be members of a banned organization escaped so easily after killing a jail guard. The DIG also says without any hesitation that all these eight people escaped by jumping out of the high walls of the prison compound without notice even though there was 24 hour cc surveillance. All these make anybody to doubt that the whole story is concocted.
Two years back five under trial Muslim prisoners were killed in a similar encounter at Aleir near Hyderabad by the Telangana police. We strongly condemn the Madhya Pradesh government and demand a judicial inquiry by a sitting high court judge on the whole episode. We also demand that all the guidelines on encounter killings prescribed by the Supreme Court should be followed in this inquiry. The police personnel involved in the killing should be suspended and charged for murder till they prove beyond doubt that this encounter was genuine.
We also demand a judicial inquiry about the killing of CPM (Maoist) activists in Odisha.
Prof A Marx Chairperson
Prof P Koya Gen Secretary
1st November 2016
ఈ దురాచారానికి అంతమెప్పుడు..?
అనంతపురం జిల్లాలో కొనసాగుతున్న బసివిని వ్యవస్థ- సాంప్రదాయం ముసుగులో అణిచివేత
– అరాచక శక్తుల కింద నలుగుతున్న దళిత మహిళలు
బడికి వెళదామంటే తండ్రి ఎవరో తెలియదు. వెళ్లినా వ్యవస్థ చిన్న చూపు చూస్తుంది. ఎవ్వరికైనా చెబుదామంటే వినేవారు లేరు. ప్రభుత్వమైనా ఆదుకుంటుందనుకుంటే పట్టించుకున్న పాపానా పోలేదు. అనేక సమస్యల నడుమ బసివినీ, దేవదాసి వ్యవస్థలోని దళిత మహిళలు నరకయాతన అనుభవిస్తున్నారు. ఇటీవల కణేకల్ ప్రాంతంలో ఒక బసివినికి పుట్టిన 12 ఏళ్ల మూగ బాలికను ఆ గ్రామంలోని పెద్దలు బలవంతంగా బసివినీగా మార్చారు. మహిళల సంరక్షణ కోసం దేశంలో ఎన్ని చట్టాలు ఉన్నా దురాచారాలను నివారించలేక పోతున్నారు. ఇప్పటికైనా దురాచారాలకు స్వస్తి చెప్పాల్సిన అవసరం ఉంది.
అనాదిగా అగ్రవర్ణాల చేతిలో దళితులు అణిచివేతకు గురవుతున్నారు. ప్రధానంగా సాంప్రదాయ ముసుగులో దళిత మహిళలను బసివినీలుగా మార్చుతున్నారు. ఫలితంగా సమాజంలో దళిత మహిళలు తీవ్ర క్షోభను అనుభవి స్తున్నారు. దేశంలో స్వాతంత్య్రానికి పూర్వం నుండి ఈ వ్యవస్థ వుంది. ఆ కాలంలోనే ఈ వ్యవస్థను రూపుమాపటానికి దేవదాసి నిరోధక చట్టాన్ని ప్రభుత్వం అమలులోకి తెచ్చింది. ఈ చట్టం ప్రకారం ఎవరినీ బసివినీ, దేవదాసినిలుగా మార్చకూడదు. అలా చేస్తే చట్ట పరమైన చర్యలు తీసుకోవాలి. గ్రామాల్లో అట్టడుగు వర్గాల్లోని స్త్రీలను ఆసాముల కామానికి మాతాంగినులుగా, జోగినులుగా, బసివినీలుగా బలిచేస్తున్నారు. 1988లో ఆంధ్రప్రదేశ్లో తెచ్చిన జోగిన వ్యవస్థ నిర్మూలన చట్టం ఈ వ్యవస్థలో పలు మార్పులును తెచ్చింది. ప్రధానంగా కన్నడ ప్రాంతాలలో ఈ వ్యవస్థ వేళ్లానుకుని వుంది. అనంతపురం జిల్లాలోనూ రాయదుర్గం, డీ.హీరేహల్, బ్రహ్మసముద్రం, కణేకల్, మడకశిర, రొద్దం, అమరాపురం పలు ప్రాంతాల్లో అత్యధిక సంఖ్యలో బసివినీలు ఉన్నారు. అనంతపురం జిల్లాలోనే రెండు వేలమంది ఉన్నట్లు అధికారిక లెక్కలు. అయితే అనధికారికంగా ఐదు వేల మంది ఉన్నట్లు పలు సర్వేలు చెబుతున్నాయి. తెలుగు రాష్ట్రాల్లో సుమారు లక్ష మంది ఈ వ్యవస్థలో మగ్గుతున్నారు. గ్రామాల్లోని పెత్తందార్ల కారణంగా నిరాధరణకు గురయిన ఆడబిడ్డలు చిన్ననాడే బసివినీలుగా మారుతున్నారు. మగదిక్కు లేక పడుపు స్త్రీలుగా సమాజంలో హీనంగా చూడబడుతున్నారు. ప్రభుత్వం వారికి గుర్తింపుతో పాటు, జీవనోపాధి, పక్కా ఇల్లు, పింఛన్లు, సాగుభూమి మంజూరు చేయాల్సి వుంది. వారి పిల్లలకు మంచివిద్య అందించటంతో పాటు రిజర్వేషన్ను కల్పించాల్సిన అవసరం వుంది. సబ్సిడీ రుణాలు, బస్సు, రైలు ప్రయాణ రాయితీలు అందించాల్సి వుంది. అయితే పాలకుల నిర్లక్ష్యం కారణంగా వారికి సరయిన సౌకర్యాలు కల్పించలేక పోతున్నారు.
సమాజంలో ఈ వ్యవస్థ ఉత్పన్నం కావటానికి ప్రధానంగా నిరక్షరాస్యత, ఆర్థిక అస మానతలే ప్రధానం. నాటి కాలంలో నెలకొన్న ఈ అసమానతలను అనుకూలంగా మార్చుకున్న పెత్తందారులు తమ స్వార్థం కోసం ఈ వ్యవస్థను సృష్టించారు. దీనిపై ప్రభుత్వం ప్రణాళికా బద్ధంగా వ్యవహరించాల్సి వుంది. దళిత మహిళల సంరక్షణకు కృషి చేయాల్సిన అవసరం ఉంది. గతంలోనే రాష్ట్రంలో జోగిని, దేవదాసి, మాతంగి, బసివిని మహిళలకు జన్మించిన పిల్లల సమస్యలపై అధ్యయనం చేసి తగిన సిఫార్సులు చేయటానికి రాష్ట్ర ప్రభుత్వం జస్టిస్ వి.రాఘవరావుతో ఏకసభ్య కమిషన్ను నియమించింది. దాని ప్రకారం ప్రధానంగా ప్రభుత్వం విద్య, ఉపాధి, వృత్తి పరమైన శిక్షణ కల్పించాల్సి ఉంది. ఈ వ్యవస్థలో చిక్కుకున్న వారికోసం ప్రత్యేక రిజర్వేషన్లు కల్పించి ఆదుకోవాల్సి వుంది. ఎవరో కట్టిన తాళిని తీసేయించి సాధారణ మహిళల వలే పెళ్లి, కుటుంబం వంటివి ఏర్పాటు చేయాలి. జోగినుల సంక్షేమం కోసం, ఆరోగ్య సమస్యల పరిష్కారం కోసం పింఛన్లు ఇవ్వాలి. తండ్రి పేరు తెలియని వారికి సరైన గుర్తింపు ఇవ్వా ల్సి వుంది. ఊరి పెత్తందారులను బాధ్యులను చేస్తూ చట్టంలో సవరణ తీసుకురావాల్సిన అవసరం ఉంది.
ఆదుకునే వారు లేరు
బసివినిలను, వారి పిల్లలను సమాజంలో ప్రతి ఒక్కరు చిన్నచూపు చూస్తున్నారు. 12 ఏళ్లలోపు బసివినీగా మారాను. ఆర్థికంగా వెనుక బడడంతో కుటుంబం గడవని పరిస్థితి. అప్పటి నుండి ఎంతో మంది స్వార్థంతో వాడుకున్నారే తప్ప ఆదుకునే వారు ఎవరు లేరు. ఇద్దరు బిడ్డలు ఉన్నారు. పాప ప్రస్తుతం ఇంటర్ చదువుతున్నది. అబ్బాయిని ఆర్థిక పరిస్థితితుల రిత్యా చదువు మాన్పించి డ్రైవర్ను చేశాను. ప్రస్తుతం తాను మూడు వేలకు ఓ ప్రవేటు సంస్థలో పనిచేస్తున్నాను. ఇక బసివినిగా నేటికి కొందరు తనను వాడుకుంటూ వారి కోర్కెలను తీర్చుకుని కొంత డబ్బు ఇస్తారు. అదే జీవనాధారంగా కుటుంబం నడుస్తున్నది. తమ పిల్లల భవిష్యత్తునైనా కాపాడుకునేందుకు ప్రభుత్వం ఆదుకోవాలి. మీనాక్షి ఉద్దేహల్
తండ్రి లేడని చెప్పా…
నేను 12 ఏళ్ల నాడే దేవదాసిగా మారాను. నా పిల్లల పరిస్థితి అలా కాకుండా చూడాలని బడిలో చేర్చించడానికి వెళితే అక్కడ తండ్రి పేరు అడిగారు. తండ్రి లేరని చెప్పాను. ఇలాంటి పరిస్థితి ఎవ్వరికి రాకుడదనుకున్నాను. ప్రభుత్వం మాలాంటి వారికి తగిన ప్రోత్సాహం అందిస్తే జీవితంలో నిలదొక్కుకుంటాం. ప్రభుత్వం నిర్లక్ష్యం చేస్తే ఎవ్వరు మమ్ములను ఆదుకుంటారు.
కూళికెళ్లి జీవనం సాగిస్తున్నాను. ఉన్న ఇద్దరు పిల్లలను బాగా చదివించి పెళ్లి చేయాలనుకున్నాను. ఇద్దరు కుమార్తెలున్న నేను వారి సంరక్షణ కోసం ఎంతో మదనపడుతున్నాను. ప్రభుత్వం తమ అవసరాలను గుర్తించి ప్రోత్సాహం అందించాలి.
There are two prominent stories around the celebration of Diwali. Diwali. One, this is the day on which Ram returned to Ayodhya and coronated himself as king after killing Ravan. It is also the day when Krishna and his wife Satyabhama killed Narakasur, known as the evil rakshasa. It’s the death of the enemy that is celebrated.
Perceptions differ from north and south India about Ram killing Ravan and Krishna killing Narakasur. Diwali day just does not remain a day of lighting lamps, wearing new clothes, worshipping whom one considers god, but also burning massive amount of crackers that pollute the atmosphere so much so that even the health of the forces that keep celebrating would also get damaged. The emissions in urban areas on that day rise to the level of choking people. And several people, especially children, die because of fires and pollution.
Let us first see the Ram narrative on which this festival is based. The reason why a festival gets celebrated and the way it is celebrated is very important for building an inclusive society and nation. Nothing wrong if a nation or a section of the nation celebrates Ram’s birthday or coronation day. But why burn Ravan’s effigies on that day?
Ravan as mythological figure is owned and venerated by a section of Dravida/Shudra/dalit/Adivasis. None other than Mahatma Phule, Periyar Ramasami Naikar and B.R. Ambedkar presented a different image of Ravan. Should then the office of the Prime Minister hurt the sentiments of historical victims, who were born in castes/tribes that get castigated as bad people or people who respect Ravan.
The Dravidians and dalit-Bahujans across the country treat Ravan as their representative. His action of abducting Sita was seen by them as an answer to mutilating the beautiful body of Shurpanaka, his own sister, by Lakshman at the instance of Ram himself. Further, he did not physically assault Sita at all. They see Shurpanaka and Sita as women who have equal rights for their dignity and self respect. Why demonise Ravan alone?
We know that mythologies are constructed by the dominant caste/class writers, not only to sustain their dominance but to subvert the emerging knowledge and identities of the historically oppressed people. The view that Ravan is a representative of Dravidian/dalit-Bahujan masses has been growing over the years. Of course there are multiple readings of Ramayana and different ways to understand the characters of that story. So also of Ram. The notion of dharma and adharma too differ from class to class and caste to caste. Those who want to worship Ram have the right to worship him, but similarly, those who want to worship Ravan or admire him have the right to do so as well.
A secular state must, thus, maintain its neutrality. If state functionaries attend the burning of Ravan’s effigy they are sanctifying the culture of historical partisanism. They are then joining the ranks of the oppressors.
Similarly, Deepawali (as it is called in the south) is also the day when Krishna killed Narakasur. Narakasur is seen as a representative of Dravidian adivasis because he represents black sturdiness, which is a part of Dravidian warrior heritage. Why should any death be celebrated? If terrorists celebrate the brutal killing of Rajiv Gandhi, men who perceived him as the man responsible for deaths and devastation in Sri Lanka, how will we respond? For Indians Rajiv Gandhi was a good man, but for Sri Lankan Tamils he was a bad man. For this historical event the reply is not killing Prabhakaran and celebrating his death in India. Even for Khalistanis who killed Indira Gandhi, she was a bad Prime Minister. If the Khalistanis celebrate the killing of Indira Gandhi with burning of crackers and lighting of lamps how do we feel?
Such events of killing and counter-killing should not become occasions for celebration that will only serve to remind representative groups of their inimical relationship. And even if wrong cultural practices continue as festivals, the state must remain aloof. The images of Ravan and Narakasur and so on were not seen as their heroes by the Dravidian masses till Mahatma Phule’s writings and activism came to play a significant role among their lives. Now they treat Ravan, Naraka, Bali as their un-Hindu heroes. Why not the other civil society respect their view of history?
We now have definite scholarly groups to own the representative images of Ravan and Narakasur. At least this must make people re-think the narrative of why we celebrate Diwali/Deepawali as festival of death but not life.
When Christians started celebrating the birthday of Jesus, as a counter the Pharisees who killed him started celebrating his crucifixion day. Gradually they understood the cruelty of their celebration and a day came in human history that the successors of Jesus’ enemies began to celebrate his birthday. Now Christmas is the biggest celebration in the world. Let those Indians who like to celebrate Ram’s persona fix some day as his birthday and celebrate it with lights, new clothes, good food and so on. So also for Krishna — Janmashtami. Nobody has a problem with that.
It’s only the evil, cruel mind which wants to celebrate death. Mahatma Phule was of the view that historically the Shudras and Ati-Shudras never celebrated death or murder. But now Diwali celebration has extended to them too. In a multi-cultural nation we all should protect everybody’s right to worship birth, not death. We should celebrate creativity and productivity, not destruction.
*☢తెలంగాణాలో బీసీ కులాల జాబితా☢*
✍🏻తెలంగాణ లో 112 బీసీ కులాలకు రిజర్వేషన్లను వర్తింపజేస్తూ 2014 ఆగస్టు ఉత్తర్వులు జారీ చేసినది దీని ప్రకారం 112 వెనుకబడిన కులాలకు మాత్రమే తెలంగాణ ప్రభుత్వం బీసీ ధృవీకరణ పత్రాలను జారీ చేయనుంది. ఉమ్మడి రాష్ట్రంలో 138 బీసీ కులాలకు రిజర్వేషన్లను అమలు చేయగా, వీటిలో తెలంగాణ రాష్ట్రానికి సంబంధించినవి 112 కులాలు ఉన్నాయని గుర్తించినట్లు ప్రకటించింది. రాష్ట్ర పునర్విభజన చట్టంలోని నిబంధనల మేరకు ఈ కులాలకు రిజర్వేషన్లను కల్పిస్తూ ఉమ్మడి రాష్ట్రప్రభుత్వం జారీ చేసిన ఉత్తర్వులను ఇక్కడ కూడా అమలు చేస్తామని ఉత్తర్వుల్లో తెలిపింది. గ్రూపు ‘ఏ’లోని కులాలకు 7 శాతం, గ్రూపు ‘బీ’లోని కులాలకు 10 శాతం, గ్రూపు ‘సీ’లోని కులాలకు 1 శాతం, గ్రూపు ‘డీ’లోని కులాలకు 7 శాతం, గ్రూపు ‘ఈ’లోని కులాలకు 4 శాతం కలుపుకొని మొత్తం 29 శాతం రిజర్వేషన్లను ఖరారు చేసింది.
✍🏻అగ్నికుల క్షత్రియ, పల్లి, వాడబలిజ, బేస్త, జాలరి, గంగవర్, గంగపుత్ర, గోండ్ల, వన్యకుల క్షత్రీయ (వన్నెకాపు, వన్నెరెడ్డి, పల్లికాపు, పల్లిరెడ్డి), నెయ్యాల, పట్టపు, బాల సంతు, బుడబుక్కల, రజక (చాకలి, వన్నార్), దా సరి, దొమ్మర, గంగిరెడ్లవారు, జంగం, జోగి, కాటిపాపల, మేదరి లేదా మహేంద్ర, మొండిరేవు, మొండిబండ, బండ, నాయి బ్రాహ్మణ (మంగలి), మంగల, భజంత్రీ, వంశరాజ్/పిచ్చగుంట్ల, పాము ల, పార్థి (మిర్మికారి) పంబల, దమ్మలి/దమ్మల/దమ్ముల/దమల, పెద్దమ్మవాండ్లు, దేవరవాండ్లు, ఎల్లమ్మవాండ్లు, ముల్యాలమ్మవాండ్లు, వీరముష్టి (నెట్టికోటల), వీరభద్రేయ, వాల్మీకిబోయ (బో య, బేదర్, కిరాటక, నిషాది, ఎల్లపి, ఎల్లపు, పెద్దబోయ) తల యారి, చుండవల్లిగుడాల, కంజర-భట్ట, కెప్మారే లేదా రెడ్డిక, మొండిపట్ట, నొక్కర్, పారికి మొగ్గుల, యాట, చోపేమరి, కైకడి, జోషినందివాలాస్, వడ్డె (వడ్డీలు, వడ్డి, వడ్డెలు), కునపు లి, పాత్ర, పాల-ఈకరి, ఈకిల, వ్యాకుల, ఈకిరి, నాయనివారు, పాలేగారు, తోలగరి, కావలి, రాజ న్నల, రాజన్నలు, బుక్కఅయ్యవారు, గోత్రాల, కా సికాపడి/ కాశీకాపుడి, సిద్ధుల, సిక్లిగర్/సైకల్గర్, పూసల (గ్రూపు ‘డీ’నుంచి తొలగించి చేర్చారు).
✍🏻ఆర్య క్షత్రియ, చిత్తారి, గినియార్, చిత్రకార, నఖాస్, దేవాంగ, గౌడ్ (ఈడిగ, గౌడ (గమ్మల), కలాలి, గుండ్ల, శ్రీశయన (సెగిడి, దూదేకుల, లద్దాఫ్, పింజరి లేదా నూర్బాషా, గాండల తెలికుల, దేవతిలకుల, జాండ్ర, కుమ్మర లేదా కులాల, శాలివాహన, కిరకలభక్తుల, కైకోలన్ లేదా కైకల (సేన్గుండం లేదా సేన్గుంతర్), కర్ణభక్తుల, కురుబ లేదా కురుమ, నీలకాంతి, పల్కార్ (ఖత్రి, పెరిక (పెరిక బలిజ, పురగిరి క్షత్రియ), నెస్సి లేదా కుర్ణి, పద్మశాలి (శాలి, శాలివన్, పట్టుశాలి, సేనాపతులు. తొగట శాలి), స్వాకులశాలి, తొగటి / తొగట వీరక్షత్రియ, విశ్వబ్రాహ్మణ, ఔసుల, కంసాలి, కమ్మరి, కంచరి, వడ్ల (వడ్ర, వడ్రంగి, శిల్పి, విశ్వకర్మ, లోధ్, లోధి, లోధా, బోంధిలి, ఆరె మరాఠీ, మరాఠా (బ్రాహ్మణేతరులు), ఆరాకలీస్, సురభి నాటకాలవాళ్లు, నీలి, బుడుభుంజల/భుంజ్వా/భద్భుంజా
✍🏻క్రైస్తవమతాన్ని స్వీకరించిన షెడ్యూల్కులాల వారు
✍🏻ఆరెకటిక, కటిక, ఆరె సూర్యవంశి, భట్రాజులు, చిప్పొళ్లు (మెర), హట్కర్, జింగర్, కచి, సూర్యబలిజ (కళావంతుల) గానిక, కృష్ణబలిజ (దాసరి, బుక్క), మాతుర, మాలి (బారె, బారియ, మారార్, తాంబోలి), ముదిరాజ్, ముత్తరాశి, తెనుగోళ్లు, మున్నురు కాపు, లక్కమారికాపు, పస్సి, రంగ్రేజ్/భవసారక్షత్రియ, సాధుచెట్టి, సాతాని (చాత్తాదశ్రీవైష్ణవ), తమ్మలి (బ్రాహ్మణేతరులు), శూద్రకులం), ఉప్పర లేదా సగర, వ ంజర (వంజరి), యాదవ (గొల్ల), ఆరె, ఆరెవాళ్లు, ఆరోళ్లు, అయ్యరక, నగరలు, అఘముడియన్, అఘముడియర్, అఘముడి వెల్లాలర్, అఘముడి ముడాలియర్, సొండి/సుండి, వరాల, శిష్టకరణం, వీరశైవలింగాయత్/ లింగబలిజ, కురిమి.
✍🏻అచ్చుకట్టలవాండ్లు, సింగలి, సింగంవాళ్లు, అచ్చుపానీవాళ్లు, అచ్చుకట్టువారు, అచ్చుకట్లవాండ్లు, అత్తర్సాయెబులు, అత్తరోల్లు, ధోబీ ముస్లిం/ముస్లిం ధోబీ/ ధోబీ ముసల్మాన్, తురకచాకల లేదా తురకసాకల, తురకచాకలి, తుళుక్కవన్నన్, సాకల, సాకల లేదా చాకలస్, ముస్లిం రజక, ఫఖీర్, ఫఖీర్ బుడబుక్కి, ఘంటి ఫకీర్, ఘంటా ఫకీర్లు, తురక బుడబుక్కి, దర్వేష్, ఫకీర్, గారడీ ముస్లిం, గారడీ సాయెబులు, పాములవాళ్లు, కాణి/కట్టువాళ్లు, గారడోళ్లు, గారడిగా, గోసంగి ముస్లిం, ఫకీర్ సాయెబులు, గుడ్డిఎలుగువాళ్లు, ఎలుగుబంటువాళ్లు, ముసల్మాన్ కీలు గుర్రాలవాళ్లు, హజ్జాం, నాయి, నాయి ముస్లిం, నవీద్, లబ్బి, లబ్బై, లబ్బన్, లబ్బా, ఫకీర్ల, బోర్వాలే, డీరఫకీర్లు, బొంతల, ఖురేషి, కురేషి/ఖురేషి, ఖసాబ్, మరాఠీ ఖసాబ్, ముస్లిం కటిక, ఖటిక్ ముస్లిం, షేక్/ షైక్, సిద్ది, యాబా, హబ్షి, జాసి, తురకకాశ, కక్కుకొట్టే జింకసాయెబులు, చక్కిటాక్నె వాలే, తెరుగాడుగొంతలవారు, తిరుగటిగంట్ల, పత్థర్పోడ్లు, చక్కెటకారే, తురకకాశ.
బౌద్ధ ధర్మం స్వీకరించిన సమయంలో డాక్టర్ బి.ఆర్. అంబేద్కర్ చేసిన ప్రసంగ పాఠం…..1 == All Buddhists and guests:
Thoughtful people perhaps may find it difficult to accept the order [literally place: stan] of the Buddhist conversion ceremony taken and given on this spot yesterday and this morning. In their opinion, and in mine also, yesterday’s program should have been today, and today’s yesterday. It is necessary to inquire: why have we taken this work on ourselves? What is the necessity? What will come from it? Only if we gain understanding will the foundation of our work be strong. We should have gained this understanding before the act itself. But some things simply happen spontaneously. This ceremony, it is true, has happened as we desired. Therefore changing the day doesn’t really spoil anything.
2 == Why was Nagpur chosen?
Many people ask me why Nagpur was decided upon for this work. Why didn’t the conversion take place in some other city? Some people say that because the great batallion of the R.S.S. was here in Nagpur, we took the meeting to this city in order to lay them flat. This is completely untrue. This program was not brought here to Nagpur because of that. Our work is so great that even one minute in a lifetime cannot be wasted. I don’t have enough time to make an ill omen for others by scratching my nose!
3 == The Nag People’s “Nag”-pur
The reason for choosing this city is different. Those who read Buddhist history will come to know that in India, if anyone spread Buddhism, it was the Nag people. The Nag people were fearful enemies of the Aryans. A Fierce and fighting war went on between the Aryans and non-Aryans. Examples of the harassment of the Nags by the Aryan people are found in the Puranas. Agasti Muni helped only one Nag man to escape from that. We spring from that man. Those Nag people who endured so much suffering wanted some great man to raise them up. They met that great man in Gautam Buddha. The Nag people spread the teaching of Buagwan Buddha all over India. Thus we are like Nag people.It seems that the Nag people lived chiefly in Nagpur and the surrounding country. So they call this city Nagpur, meaning city of Nags. About 27 miles from here the Nag Nadi river flows. Of course the name of the river comes from the people living here. In the middle of the Nag habitation runs the Nag Nadi. This is the main reason for choosing this place. Nagpur was chosen because of this. In this matter, there is no question of a lie to provoke someone. This is not such a mental twist. The reason of the R.S.S. did not even come into my mind, and no one should take that explanation as true.
4 == The opponents’ useless cry
Perhaps one could oppose [this choice] for other reasons. I have not chosen this place just out of opposition, I tell you. This work that I began was criticized by various people and newspapers. The criticism of some people is hard. In their opinion, I was leading my poor helpless Untouchable people astray. They say, “Today those who are Untouchables will remain Untouchables, and those rights gained for the Untouchables will be destroyed,” and some people among us are bewildered. To the unlearned people among us, they say, “Go by the traditional path” [pagdandi (Hindi), “footpath,” suggests that the Mahars should use an inferior path]. On some of the old and young among us, they may be influential. If doubt has been created in the minds of people because of this, it is our duty to remove that doubt; and to turn back that doubt is to strengthen the foundation of our movement.
5 == The propaganda at that time inKesari
Earlier we people had had a movement against eating meat. The touchables thought a bolt of lightning had hit them. They should drink living buffalo’s milk; but, when that buffalo died, we should carry that dead cow on our shoulders. Wasn’t this a strange practice? We tell them, if your old woman died, then why not give her to us? If you ought to give us your dead cow, then you ought to give us your old woman also, shouldn’t you? At that time, some man wrote inKesari that in certain villages every year fifty cattle die, so that five hundred rupees can be earned from their hide, horns, hooves, meat, bones, and tail. Leaving aside the matter of meat, these people will be deprived of all that profit, so the letter appeared in Kesari. Really speaking, what was the necessity of giving an answer to his propaganda? But our people used to feel that if our lord [Babasaheb] does not give an answer to this thing, then what does the lord do at all?
6 == The profits of dead animals’ hide, horns, hooves
Once I went to a meeting at Sangamner. An arrangement for eating in the evening after the meeting had been made. At that time a note was sent me by a Kesari reporter, and he asked me, “Say, you tell your people not to remove dead cattle [from the village]! Look at their poverty. No sari and blouse for their wives, no food for them, no fields for them. When their circumstances are so difficult, why do you say, throw away the 500-rupee profit every year from hide, hoof, and meat? Is this not a loss for your people?”
7 == “You remove the dead cattle and take the profit!”
I said: We will answer you. Shall I answer here on the veranda, or in a meeting? It is good if this critical question comes before people. I asked the gentleman, “Is this all you have to say, or is there more?” The gentleman said, “Whatever I have asked you, answer that much.” I asked that man, “How many children and dependents do you have”? He said, “I have five sons and my brother has five or six children children also.” I said, “Then your family is large. You and your relations should certainly remove the dead cattle from the village and get that 500-rupee profit. Besides that, every year I myself will give you 500 rupees on top of that. Whatever will become of my people, whether they will get food and clothing or not, this is my affair and I will look after it. But are you putting aside such a successful thing? Why do you not take it on? If we do the work and get the profit, won’t there be a profit if you do it? Why don’t you remove the dead cattle?”
8 == “Become Mahars and get reserved seats!”
Yesterday a Brahmin boy came to me and asked, “In Parliament and the Assemblies, your people have been given reserved places. Why are you giving those up?” I said to him, “You become a Mahar and fill that place in Parliament and the Assemblies. If there is a service vacant, then that place fills in no time. How many applications from Brahmins and others come for that place! As places in service are filled in that way, why don’t you Brahmin people, as Mahars, fill those reserved seats?”
9 == Honor is dear, profit is not dear
If we have suffered a loss, why do youweep? This is my question to them.Truly it means honor is dear to mankind; profit is not dear. A woman of good qualities and good behavior knows that there is profit in prostitution. There is a locality of prostitutes in our Bombay. When those women get up at eight in the morning, they order breakfast from a nearby hotel and say (Dr. Ambedkar at this time, giving an imitiation in a different voice, said): “Suleman, you bring a pound of bread and a plate of minced meat.” That Suleman brings it. Besides, he brings tea, bread, cake, and other things. But my depressed-class sisters do not even get ordinary chutney-bhakri. However, they live with dignity. They live piously.
10 == Leave aside childishness; be mature
We are fighting for honor. We are getting ready to lead mankind to perfection. For this, we are ready to do any sacrifice necessary. These newspaper people (turning toward them) have pestered me for the last forty years.How much criticism have they given me, even up to this day! I say to them, however: Think! Today, leave aside immature speech; use mature speech.
11 == We will certainly get our rights again
If we accept Buddhism, even then I will get political rights. I am absolutely sure of this (Cries of “Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar” and loud clapping). I cannot say what will happen on my death. Much important work must be done for this movement. What will happen because we have accepted Buddhism? If difficulties come, then how can they be removed? What strategy, what preparations should be made? –To all this I have given much thought. My bag of tricks is full of all kinds of things. How it got to be full, I know very well. I myself got those rights for my people. The one who got those rights in the first place will be able to get them again. I myself am the giver of those rights and concessions, and I will get those concessions again, I am sure. At least for the present, you should continue to have faith in me. I will prove that there is no truth in the opposing propaganda.
12 == Delivered from hell
I am surprised at only one thing. Much discussion has been going on everywhere. But not even one man has asked me, “Why did you accept Buddhism?” Putting aside all other religions, why was this religion accepted? In any movement to change religion, this is the main question. When one makes a change of religion, one has to test: which religion [should we take]? Why should we take it? The movement to leave the Hindu religion was taken in hand by us in 1955, when a resolution was made in Yeola. “Even though I was born in the Hindu religion, I will not die in the Hindu religion” –this oath I made earlier; yesterday I proved it true. I am happy; I am ecstatic! I have left hell –this is how I feel. I do not want any blind followers. Those who come into the Buddhist religion should come with understanding; they should consciously accept that religion.
13 == Karl Marx’s sect and we
Religion is a very necessary thing for the progress of mankind. I know that a sect has appeared because of the writings of Karl Marx. According to their creed, religion means nothing at all. Religion is not important to them. They get a breakfast in the morning of bread, cream, butter, chicken legs, etc.; they get undisturbed sleep; they get to see movies; and that’s all there is. This is their philosophy. I am not of that opinion. My father was poor, and therefore we did not get comforts of that kind. No one has ever lived a life as hard as mine! How hard a man’s life can be without happiness and comforts, that I know. I agree that an economic elevation movement is necessary. I am not against that movement. Man must progress economically.
14 == Buffalo, bull, and man
But I note an important difference in this matter. There is a difference between buffalo, bull, and man. Buffalo and bull must have fodder daily. Man also must have food. But between the two the difference is this: the buffalo and bull have no mind; man has, along with his body, a mind. Both have to be cared for. The mind should be developed. The mind should become cultured, and that culture has to be developed. I want no sort of relationships with people from a country where it is said that there is no connection between man and his cultured mind except for his body. I do not need any such relationship. Just as a man’s body should be healthy, the mind also should be cultured.
15 == The origin of energy [utsah] is a cultured mind
Why is there illness in man’s body or mind? The reasons are, either there is bodily pain, or there is no energy in the mind. If there is no energy in the mind, then there will be no progress! Why is there no energy there? The first reason is this: man is kept down in such a fashion that he does not get an opportunity to come up, or he has no hope of climbing. At that time, can he be ambitious? He is a diseased person. A man who gets the fruit of his own work will be energetic. Otherwise, in school, if the teacher begins to say, “Hey, who is this? Is this a Mahar? And will this wretched Mahar pass with a first class? Why does he want first class? Stay in your fourth class! To get into first class is Brahmins’ work!” –in these circumstances, how can that child be ambitious? What will be his progress? The place of creation of energy is the mind. The person whose body and mind are healthy, who is courageous, who feels that he will overcome all circumstances, in that kind of person energy will be created, and that kind of person alone excels. In the Hindu religion, such an extraordinary philosophy is found in the writings that one can’t get any sense of possible achievement at all. If a man is left for a thousand years in poor circumstances, discarded, made hopeless, then at the most they will have no more ambition than to fill their stomachs with a minor job. What else can happen? There must be a big clerk to secure the protection of these little clerks.
16 == I put on a langoti and got my education
Man’s spirit is created in the mind. You know the owner of the mill. He appoints a manager over the mill, and through the manager the work in the mill gets done. These mill owners have a few bad habits. The culture of their minds has not been developed. We had to think actively with our minds, so we started a movement. At that time education was started. I put on a langoti [the scantiest possible Indian garment] and began my education. In school I did not even get drinking water. How many days dragged by without water! Also in Bombay, even at Elphinstone College, conditions were the same. If the atmosphere is like this, how will different conditions be created? Only clerks will be created.
17 == Hindu, Mussalman, and we
When I was on the Executive Council at Delhi, Lord Linlithgow was Viceroy. I told him, “You spend the normal budget, and in addition you pay three lakhs of rupees for Aligarh University for education for the Moslems.” Then Linlithgow said, “Write out a memo about that and bring it in.” Accordingly, I wrote a memorandum. That memorandum is still with me. European people were very sympathetic. They accepted what I said. But the hitch was that they didn’t know what to spend the money on. They thought, our girls are not educated: education should be given to them, their boarding should be arranged, and the money should be spent on that. But if our girls were to be educated and taught to cook different foods, where at home was the material to make those same dishes? What was the end result of their education? The government spent the proper amounts on other things, but the amount for education was not spent.
18 == Men sitting on the pinnacle of the palace
So I went one day to Linlithgow and said, concerning the expense of education, “If you will not get angry, I want to ask a question. I am equal to fifty [high school] graduates, am I not?” He had to agree to that. Then I asked, “What is the reason?” He said, “I don’t know the reason.” I said, “My learning is so great that I could sit on the pinnacle of the palace. I want such men. Because– from the top, one can survey everything. If our people are to be protected, then such sharp-eyed, able men should be created. What can a mere clerk do?” Immediately my words convinced Linlithgow, and that year sixteen students were sent to England for higher education. If those sixteen, some came out raw and some mature, just as some water jugs are half-baked and some are finished… leave aside the consequences. Later Rajagopalacarya cancelled this plan for higher education.
19 == A thousand years of hopeless conditions
In this country, the situation is such that we can be kept in a hopeless state for a thousand years. As long as such conditions prevail, it is not possible to begin to produce ambition to progress. We have not been able to do anything about it by staying in the Hindu religion. The Chaturvarna is found inManusmriti. The hierarchy of the Chaturvarna is very dangerous for the progress of mankind. It is written in theManusmriti that Shudras should do only menial services. Why should they have education? The Brahmin should get education, the Kshatriya should take up arms, the Vaishya should do business, the Shudra should serve– who can disrupt this precise arrangement? There is profit in it for the people of the Brahmin, Kshatriya, and Vaishya castes. What of the Shudra? Can any ambition develop in the lower castes? The Chaturvarna system was not created haphazardly. It is not just a popular custom. It is religion.
20 == Chaturvarna, Gandhi, and bad religion
There is no equality in the Hindu religion. One time when I went to see Gandhi, he said, “I respect Chaturvarna.” I said, “Mahatmas like you respect the Chaturvarna, but just what is this Chaturvarna? (Dr. Ambedkar stretched out his hand horizontally, and then turned it over, so the four fingers were in vertical order.) Is this Chaturvarna up or down? Who created the Chaturvarna, and who will end it?” Gandhi did not answer the question. And what could he say? Those people who destroyed us will also be destroyed because of this religion. I do not accuse this Hindu religion without reason. Because of the Hindu religion, no one can progress. That religion is only a destructive religion.
21 == If we were allowed to use arms…
Why did our country go under the domination of another? In Europe, there were wars until 1945. Whenever a soldier was killed, a recruit took his place. No one said, “We have won the war” [before it was won]. In our country, everything is different. If Kshatriyas are killed, we are doomed. If we had been allowed to bear arms, this country would not have gone into slavery. No one would have been able to conquer this country.
22 == Progress will come only through the Buddhist religion
Remaining in the Hindu religion will bring no kind of progress to anyone. For some, the hierarchy of the Hindu religion brings profits; this is true for the superior classes and castes. But what of the others? If a Brahmin woman delivers a child, from then on her vision is on any high court judge’s place which might fall vacant. If one of our sweeper women is brought to bed, her vision turns toward the place of a sweeper. Such strange arrangements the Hindu religious class system has made. What improvements can come from this system? Progress can come only in the Buddhist religion.
23 == Buddha’s message on equality
In the Buddhist religion, 75% of the Bhikkhus were Brahmin; 25% were Shudra and others. But Bhagvan said, “O Bhikkhus, you have come from different countries and castes. Rivers flow separately in their own countries, but do not remain distinct when they meet in the sea. They become one and the same. The Buddhist brotherhood of monks is like the sea. In this Sangha all are equal. It is impossible to know Ganga water from Mahandi water after both have merged in the sea. In that way, after coming into the Buddhist Sangha, your caste goes, and all people are equal. Only one great man spoke of equality, and that great man is Bhagvan Buddha.
24 == Mine is a great responsibility
Some people say, “Why did you take so much time to get converted? What have you been doing all these days?” This question is important. The task of teaching religious understanding is not easy. It is not the work of one man. An understanding of the task will come to any man who thinks about religion. No man in the world has as much responsibility as I. If I get a long enough life, I will finish my appointed task. (Cries of “Long live Dr. Babasaheb!”)
25 ==As Mahar Buddhists, don’t defame us
“If the Mahars become Buddhists, then what will happen?” Some people will speak this way. They should not, I tell them. It will bring calamity upon them. The superior and wealthy class will not feel the necessity of religion. Among them, those having offices have a bungalow to live in, servants to do all the work; they have money and wealth and respect. Men of that sort have no reason to give thought to religion, or to be anxious about it.
26 == Religion is necessary for the poor
For the poor, religion is a necessity. Religion is necessary for people in distress. The poor man lives on hope. ‘Hope!’ [in English]. The source of life is hope. If this hope is destroyed, then how will life go on? Religion makes one hopeful, and to those in pain, to the poor, it gives a message: “Don’t be afraid; life will be hopeful, it will be.” So poor and distressed mankind clings to religion.
27 == What does the history of the Christian religion tell?
At the time the Christian religion entered Europe, the condition of Rome and the neighboring countries was one of utter distress. People didn’t get enough to eat. A simple dish of rice and pulao was distributed to poor people [to keep them alive]. At that time, who became the followers of Christ? Poor, miserable people only. In Europe, all poor and inferior people became Christians. This Christian religion is for beggars, Gibbon has written. How this Christian religion became the religion of all Europe, Gibbon is not alive today to tell us. If he were alive today, he would be required to answer that question.
28 == The world respects only the Buddha
Some people will say, “This Buddhist religion is a religion for Mahars and Mangs.” Brahmins used to say, “Hey, you!” [Bho Gautam] to Bhagvan. Brahmins thus spoke slightingly of the Buddha. But if they take their images to a foreign country to sell them, they will find not many images of Ram, Krishna, Shankar will be sold. But if they take images of the Buddha, not a single image would be left. (Loud clapping.) There has been enough talk by the Brahmins about India. They should show their worth outside! Only one name is proclaimed throughout the world, and that name is “Buddha.” How can the Buddhist religion be stopped from spreading?
29 == Our way is the way of the Buddha
We will go by our path; others should go by their path. We have found a new way. This is a day of hope. This is a way of success, of prosperity. This way is not something new. This path was not brought here from somewhere else. This path is from here, it is purely Indian. The Buddhist religion has been in India for two thousand years. Truly speaking, we regret that we did not become Buddhists before this. The principles spoken by Bhagvan Buddha are immortal. But the Buddha did not make a claim for this, however. There is an opportunity of making changes according to the times. Such open-mindedness is not found in any other religion.
30 == Milinda and Nagasena
The chief reason for the destruction of Buddhism is the Moslem invasion. The Moslems in their onslaught broke and destroyed images. They at first encroached on the Buddhist religion in this way. Fearing the invasion, the Buddhist Bhikkhus disappeared. Some went to Tibet, some went to China, some went wherever they could go. For the protection of religion, laymen are required. In the Northwest Frontier state there was a Greek Raja. His name was Milinda. This king used to hold discussions regularly. Great delight was taken in these discussions. He used to say to the Hindus, whoever is an expert at debate should come to these forums. Many were at a loss for an answer [when they participated]. One time he thought he should have a discussion with Buddhist people; and he said, any Buddhist expert at debate should be brought to him. Therefore Buddhist people asked Nagasena to go: “You should take up the cause of the Buddhists.” Nagasena was learned. He was a Brahmin. The discussion that took place between Nagasena and Milinda is famous throughout the world as a book. That book’s name is Milinda Punha. Milinda asked this question: “Why does religion languish?” Nagasena gave three reasons in his answer.
31 == Three reasons for religious decline
(1) The first reason is that some religion is immature. In that religion, the basic principles have no depth. That makes for a temporal religion, and the religion will hold fast only if it suits the times.
(2) The second reason is that there may be no learned men to spread the religion. If there are none, the religion languishes. Learned men should preach religious wisdom. If the propagandists of a religion are not ready to hold discussion with opponents, the religion will die.
(3) The third reason is this: [if] religion and religious philosophy are only for the learned [, the religion will not survive]. For common ordinary people, there are temples and shrines. They go there and worship supernatural power. [If this is the case, the religion languishes.]
32 == The only generous religion
We should remember these reasons as we take the conversion to Buddhism. No one can say that Buddhist principles are temporal. Even today, two thousand five hundred hears afterwards, all the world respects the principles of Buddhism. In America there are two thousand Buddhist institutions. In England, at an expense of 300,000 rupees a Buddhist temple has been build. Even in Germany there are three or four thousand Buddhist institutions. Buddhist principles are immortal. Nevertheless the buddha did not make the claim that this religion is from God. The Buddha said, “My father was a common man, my mother was a common woman. If you want a religion, then you should take this religion. If this religion suits your mind, then accept it.” Such generosity is not found in any other religion.
33 == The work of Buddhism is to lessen the suffering of the poor
What is the original foundation of Buddhism? Other religions and the Buddhist religion are very different. In other religions, change will not occur, because those religioins tell of a relationship between man and God. Other religions say that god created the world. God created the sky, wind, moon, everything. God did not leave anything left over for us to do. So we should worship God. According to the Christian religion, there is, after death, a Day of Judgment, and all depends on that judgment. There is no place for God and soul in the Buddhist religion. Bhagvan Buddha said there is suffering everywhere in the world. Ninety percent of mankind is distressed by sorrow. Suffering mankind should be freed from sorrow– this is the basic work of Buddhism. What did Karl Marx say that was different from the buddha’s sayings? [However,] what Bhagvan said, he did not say via a crazy, crooked path.
34 == My brothers’ work
Brothers, what I have had to say, I have said. This religion is fully formed in every way. There is no stain on it anywhere. The principles of Hinduism are so peculiarly arranged that it is impossible to create happiness from them. From thousands of years ago until just the other day, not even one man from our society could be a graduate or a learned man. I do not hesitate to tell you that in my school was a sweeper woman. She was Marathi. She would not touch me. My mother used to tell me, “Call a grown-up man ‘Mama’.” I would call the Postman, “Mama.” (Laughter.) In childhood, in school, once I was thirsty. I told the master. The master, for my protection, called a chaprasi and told him to take me to the tap. We went to the tap. The chaprasi then started the tap and I drank water. Usually all during the week at school I did not get to drink water. Later I was given some service as a District Judge. But I did not get stuck with that sort of binding job. Who will do the work of my brothers? This was the problem before me, so I did not get stuck in that bondage.
35 == The burden on your head
Nothing is impossible for me as an individual in this country. The burden [a word meaning a graduated series of pots carried on the head] on your head– the burden of Vaishya, Kshatriya, Brahmin– how that burden will be tumbled down is the true question. It is my duty to give you in all ways knowledge of this religion. By writing a book, I will remove all doubts and suspicions and will try to lead you to a stage of full knowledge. Today at least you should place faith in me.
36 == Regenerate yourself and the world
Your responsibility, however, is great. Your actions should be such that other people will honor and respect you. Do not believe that this religion means we have got stuck with an albatross [a word meaning the burden of a corpse] around our neck. The Indian earth today is of no account, as far as Buddhism is concerned. We should be determined to observe the Buddhist religion in the best way. It should not happen that the Mahar people would bring Buddhism to a low stage. We should make a firm decision. If we accomplish this, then we save ourselves, we save our country– and not only that, but the world also. Why? Because the Buddhist religion will be the savior of the world. As long as the world does not achieve justice, there will be no peace in the world.
37 == Make a decision to give a twentieth part of your earnings
This new way is one of responsibility. We have made some resolutions, have expressed some desires. The young should remember this. They should not become only petty officers for the sake of their stomach. We should make this decision: “I will give at least one-twentieth of my earnings to this work.” I want to take all of you with me. In the first instance, the Tathagat gave initiation to some individuals, and gave them this advice: “Spread this religion.” In that way, Yesha and his forty friends were converted to Buddhism. Yesha was from a wealthy family. Bhagvan said to him, “What is this religion like? It is [in Pali:] ‘for the welfare of many people, for the friendship of many people, for compassion for the world; dhamma is welfare in the beginning, welfare in the middle, conducive to welfare in the end’.” In the conditions of that age, in that way, the Tathagat made ready the way for the spreading of his religion. Now we also must make ready the way [a word meaning mechanism]. After this function, each one should give initiation to each one. Every Buddhist man has the authority to give initiation, this I proclaim. (Applause. In this way Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar finished his two-hour speech.)
This October it will be seven years since Balagopal left us.
The Human Rights Forum is organising a commemorative meet on October 9 (Sunday) from 10 am to 4 pm at the Sundarayya Vignana Kendram, Hyderabad. We invite you to join us in remembering Balagopal on the occasion.
There will be talks on four important, contemporary topics:
Umar Khalid, JNU scholar and an activist with the Bhagat Singh Ambedkar Students Organisation (BASO) will talk about “The patriotism of defending difference and dissent”.
Manish Kunjam, national president of Adivasi Mahasabha will speak on “The continuing outrage in Bastar”.
Prof KY Ratnam of the Centre for Ambedkar Studies, University of Hyderabad will reflect upon “Caste discrimination in educational institutions”.
Zamir Ahmed of the Jammu Kashmir Coalition of Civil Society (JKCCS) will speak on “Why is Kashmir bleeding again”.
We’ve attached posters and a pamphlet for all the talks to this email for your reference.
We shall be releasing four publications on the day. Written in Telugu, all of them were authored by Balagopal. They are:
• Visthapana –Vidhvamsam (displacement-destruction) — HRF publication.
• Adivasulu : Chattalu- Abhivrudhi (Adivasis: Development and the Law) – Perspectives publication.
• Konni Telangana Vyasalu (A few essays on Telangana) – Matti Mudranalu publications.
• Kashmirpai Balagopal – Hyderabad Book Trust.
and a DVD — Democracy Dialogues — containing a video and audio of Balagopal’s speeches in Telugu – brought out by Article 21 Communications.
A HRF publication titled “Visakhakalo 7va number kalushya hetcharika” will also be released on the occasion.
We have made lunch arrangements for all participants at the venue.
We hope to see you on the 9th..
Human Rights Forum (HRF)
Maanava Hakkula Vedika
our website: http://www.humanrightsforum.org
event facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/events/1149031935146286